By B. Grobock. University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. 2018.
Screening for white-coat hypertension is currently a reimbursable indi- cation for ABPM by Medicare cheap dapoxetine 60 mg mastercard. Other uses for ABPM include assessment of hypotensive symptoms order dapoxetine 30mg on-line, episodic hypertension, and suspected autonomic dysfunction in patients with postural hypotension. ABPM is also useful in the evaluation of the occasional patient with hypertensive target-organ injury (LVH, stroke) whose office blood pressure is normal. A 25-year-old black man presents to your office seeking to establish primary care. The patient has no complaints and denies any known medical history. His blood pressure is noted to be 185/115; otherwise, his physical examination is normal. Which of the following statements regarding the initial evaluation of hypertension in this patient is true? A retinal examination should now be performed on this patient ❏ B. Because this patient has been diagnosed with hypertension, obtaining a family history of hypertension or early CV disease is no longer useful ❏ C. During the initial examination, only a single careful blood pressure measurement is needed ❏ D. This patient has no findings consistent with secondary hypertension Key Concept/Objective: To understand the importance of the initial evaluation of hypertension Secondary hypertension may be suspected on finding features that are not consistent with essential hypertension. Such features include age at onset younger than 30 years or older than 50 years; blood pressure higher than 180/110 mm Hg at diagnosis; significant target- organ injury at diagnosis; hemorrhages and exudates on fundus examination; renal insuf- ficiency; LVH; poor response to appropriate three-drug therapy; and accelerated or malig- nant hypertension. The clinician should inquire about a family history of hypertension, premature CV disease, and disorders that would increase the possibility of secondary hypertension. The examination should include at least two standardized measurements of blood pressure with the patient in the seated position. Initially, blood pressure should also be measured in the opposite arm (to identify arterial narrowing, which can cause an inac- 1 CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE 9 curately low reading in one arm) and in the standing position, especially in diabetic patients and older patients (to identify orthostatic declines). Retinal examination should be performed, primarily to identify retinal changes of diabetes or severe hypertension (i. A 51-year-old white man recently relocated to the area and presents to your office as a new patient. He made very infrequent visits to a primary care provider where he previously lived. He is on no medicines and denies having any significant family medical his- tory. He is a current smoker with a 40 pack-year smoking history. His blood pressure is 170/95 mm Hg, and a fourth heart sound is present. The most appropriate initial medical therapy for this patient is an alpha blocker ❏ B. The most appropriate initial medical therapy for this patient is a thi- azide diuretic ❏ C. The most appropriate initial medical therapy for this patient is a thi- azide diuretic in combination with another antihypertensive agent that works via a different blood pressure regulatory pathway ❏ D. To have this patient stop smoking cigarettes would have little or no effect on the control of his hypertension Key Concept/Objective: To understand the importance of appropriate drug therapy and lifestyle modifications in the treatment of hypertension The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VII) recommends thiazide diuretics as initial drugs of choice for most patients with hypertension; this recommendation is based on the totality of data from randomized trials, including the Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT).
Brain stem or cerebellar infarction discount 90 mg dapoxetine, vertebral fracture order dapoxetine 60 mg without a prescription, tracheal rupture, internal carotid artery dissection, and diaphragmatic paralysis are rare but have all been reported with cervical manipulation. Given the lack of efficacy data and the risk (although small) of catastrophic adverse events, it is difficult to advocate routine use of this technique for treatment of neck or headache disorders. Physicians should also recognize potential contraindications to chiropractic ther- apy. Patients with coagulopathy, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, spinal neoplasms, or spinal infections should be advised against such treatments. A 63-year-old man presents to your clinic for an initial evaluation. He has a history of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and erectile dysfunction. His current medical regimen includes hydrochlorothiazide, metoprolol, enalapril, digoxin, coumarin, and terazosin. During the visit, the patient pulls out a bag of vitamins and herbal supplements that he recently began taking. He hands you several Internet printouts regarding the supplements and asks your advice. Which of the following statements about dietary supplements is true? Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), all supplements are now required to undergo premarket testing for safety and efficacy ❏ B. Because they are natural products, dietary supplements are uniformly safe, with no significant drug-drug interactions ❏ C. The dietary-supplement industry has little incentive for research because natural substances cannot be patented ❏ D. The Food and Drug Administration regulates dietary supplements under the same guidelines as pharmaceuticals Key Concept/Objective: To understand the potential for toxicity and drug-drug interactions asso- ciated with dietary supplements The supplement industry has become a billion-dollar business, largely as a result of loos- ening of federal regulations. In 1994, DSHEA expanded the definition of dietary supple- ments to include vitamins, amino acids, herbs, and other botanicals. Furthermore, under DSHEA, supplements no longer require premarket testing for safety and efficacy. Dietary supplements, such as herbs, may have a significant profit potential, but the incentive for research is weakened by the fact that herbs, like other natural substances, cannot be patented. In addition, foods and natural products are regulated under rules different from those for pharmaceuticals, which must meet stringent standards of efficacy and safety. Although most dietary supplements are well tolerated and are associated with few adverse effects, the potential for harm from the lack of regulation can be seen from examples of misidentification of plant species, contamination with heavy metals, and addition of pharmaceutical agents. Overall, there is only limited evidence supporting the use of most dietary supplements. Most clinical trials have been small, nonrandomized, or unblinded. The potential for significant toxicity and drug interactions does exist. A 56-year-old man with a history of coronary artery disease and a documented ejection fraction of 40% by echocardiography presents for further management. At this visit, the patient denies having shortness of breath, dyspnea on exertion, orthopnea, or lower extremity edema. He has never been admitted to the hospital for congestive heart failure (CHF). According to the new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines for the evaluation and management of heart failure, in what stage of heart failure does this patient belong? Stage D Key Concept/Objective: To understand the new classification of heart failure proposed by the ACC/AHA The ACC/AHA classification is a departure from the traditional New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, which characterizes patients by symptom severity.
ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) ❏ B dapoxetine 30 mg without prescription. Digoxin 1 CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE 3 Key Concept/Objective: To be aware of proven pharmacologic therapy aimed at counterbalancing the activation of the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic systems Left ventricular dysfunction begins with an injury to the myocardium generic 60mg dapoxetine with mastercard. The unanswered question is why ventricular systolic dysfunction continues to worsen in the absence of recurrent insults. This pathologic process, which has been termed remodeling, is the struc- tural response to the initial injury. Mechanical, neurohormonal, and possibly genetic fac- tors alter ventricular size, shape, and function to decrease wall stress and compensate for the initial injury. Remodeling involves hypertrophy, loss of myocytes, and increased fibro- sis, and it is secondary to both neurohormonal activation and other mechanical factors. In patients with heart failure, ACE inhibitors have been shown to improve survival and car- diac performance, to decrease symptoms and hospitalizations, and to decrease or slow the remodeling process. ARBs block the effects of angiotensin II at the angiotensin II type 1 receptor site. ACC/AHA guidelines recommend the use of ARBs only in patients who can- not tolerate ACE inhibitors because of cough or angioedema; the guidelines stress that ARBs are comparable to ACE inhibitors but are not superior. Since publication of the guide- lines, however, several key trials have reported successful intervention with ARBs in patients in stage A and stage B. The primary action of beta blockers is to counteract the harmful effects of the increased sympathetic nervous system activity in heart failure. Beta blockers improve survival, ejection fraction, and quality of life; they also decrease mor- bidity, hospitalizations, sudden death, and the maladaptive effects of remodeling. Aldosterone also works locally within the myocardium, contributing to hypertrophy and fibrosis in the failing heart. A large randomized trial has shown that the addition of low- dose spironolactone (25 mg daily) to standard treatment reduces morbidity and mortality in patients with NYHA class III and IV heart failure (stage C and D patients). A large ran- domized study demonstrated that digoxin was successful in decreasing hospitalization for heart failure—an important clinical end point—but did not decrease mortality. It has no role in preventing maladaptive ventricular remodeling. A 60-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents with a new complaint of progressive dyspnea. Grade IV to VI murmur at the apex that radiates to the axilla ❏ B. S4 gallop Key Concept/Objective: To understand the physical examination findings of left-sided systolic heart failure Mitral regurgitation resulting from annular dilatation is commonly audible in systolic heart failure. However, the regurgitant murmur is generally no louder than grade II to grade III in intensity and will wax and wane, depending on the extent of left ventricular dilatation. Murmurs of greater intensity should suggest intrinsic rather than functional valve disease. Paradoxical splitting of S2 can occur in systolic chronic heart failure as a result of either left bundle branch block or reversal of A2 and P2 caused by prolonged ejection of blood by the impaired left ventricle. Fixed splitting of S2 is associated with atrial septal defect or right ventricular failure. Patients with COPD also find it easier to breathe with the head of the bed and thorax elevated. A presystolic, or S4, gallop indi- cates reduced compliance of the left ventricle but not a failing left ventricle per se.
In Douglas’ case cheap dapoxetine 30 mg visa, his anger is channelled into bullying behaviour in the school playground dapoxetine 60 mg with amex. The case of Harry and his brothers has another important feature; they live in a single-parent household. Indeed, recognition of the undervalued status of single mothers who carry on meeting their children’s needs after partners have succumbed to the strain of family life was a factor examined by Cigno and Burke (1997) when considering the support needs of the family. Family stress The impact of stress is associated with difficult experiences at home and at school and might lead to expressions of regret concerning disabled siblings. This was a not uncommon reaction, as I found in my research (Burke and Montgomery 2003), where regret may be expressed as ‘making life too hard or difficult’ compared with perceptions of the lives led by non-disabled families. The above views, however, are seemingly inconsistent with findings (Burke and Montgomery 2003) concerning the consequences of disability on the family. Nearly three-quarters of families (31 out of 42) reported that they found it difficult to do things together 52 / BROTHERS AND SISTERS OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES and had ‘less time for brothers and sisters’ owing to the needs of their disabled child; consequently, siblings experience some loss of attention. In terms of inclusion, then, it may seem to be the case that difference, however perceived, affects the self-concept, and causes reactions within the individual concerned. The remedy is not necessarily at an individual level, for a social model of disability would indicate that perceptions of difference reflect attitudinal constraints exerted by the wider society. Acceptance at a societal level should therefore remedy some, if not all, of the difficulties encountered by siblings experiencing problems with their own self-identity. Acceptance at an individual level requires contact and association with one’s sibling but, it is to be hoped, not with the experience reported on in Jane’s case, which resulted in an emulation of disability. These are difficult balances to be made, and the examples cited represent some extreme cases, not conforming to the norm in terms of childhood disability, but helping towards an understanding of how dis- abilities and differences might be perceived by children. Chapter 4 Family and Sibling Support It is probably an accepted fact, even without recourse to the research, that children with disabilities require more help and support than other children. The evidence for such a proposition is there, and is to be found in the research on the subject: in work, for example, by McCormack (1978), Glendenning (1986), Burke and Cigno (1996), Burke and Montgomery (2001a, b). It is not my intention to debate such a settled argument but to raise concern about the brothers and sisters of children with disabilities. Indeed, according to Atkinson and Crawford (1995) approximately 80 per cent of children with disabilities have non-disabled siblings and, while the need for shared parental care will be a matter of concern for all families, the impact of living with a disabled child will challenge the available ‘share of care’ available from parents to a greater or lesser degree. One question which a parent might ask (and there will be many) is ‘What difference does giving more time to a disabled child than siblings make to the family? It is with such an examination in mind that this chapter was written. The basics are simple: if one child needs more attention than another, less time is available for the other and doing things together may not be possible. Parents are aware that siblings may suffer from a lack of attention: according to an OPCS survey (Bone and Meltzer 1989) 48 per cent of parents thought that they had less time for other siblings. The Department 53 54 / BROTHERS AND SISTERS OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES of Health and Social Welfare (1986) showed that when a child had several disabilities, 72 per cent of parents thought that siblings were affected to some extent. It appears that the time available to the non-disabled child is in an inverse ratio to the needs of the disabled child: the greater the needs of the child with a disability, the greater the reduction in the time available to the parent in caring for siblings. The impact of childhood disability on the family must therefore be profound but, again, this will vary according to the type of disability and how it manifests itself. Additional variables will concern the families themselves, since all will not respond to the needs of their children in exactly the same way. Yet, as I shall show, siblings who are denied their share of attention will, nevertheless, be a major help to their parents in sharing caring responsibilities.
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