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Research has shown that the ranking of students is unaltered by the marking scheme used buy viagra super active 50mg line, so simplicity should be the guiding principle discount viagra super active 100mg on line. Multiple-choice questions An example of a simple multiple-choice question (MCQ) is shown in Figure 8. The MCQ illustrated is made up of a stem (‘In a 40 year old’) and five alternative answers. Of these alternatives one is correct and the others are known as ‘distractors’. One advantage of the MCQ over the true-false question is a reduction in the influence of guessing. Obviously, in a simple true-false question there is a 50 per cent chance of guessing the correct answer. In a one from five MCQ there is only a 20 per cent chance of doing so if all the distractors 143 are working effectively. Unfortunately it is hard to achieve this ideal and exam-wise students may easily be able to eliminate one or two distractors and thus reduce the number of options from which they have to guess. Information about the effectiveness of the distractors is usually available after the examination if it has been computer-marked. Some advocate the use of correction formulas for guessing but this does not – on balance - appear to be worth the effort and may add an additional student-related bias to the results. If you intend to use multiple-choice questions you should take particular note of the points in Figure 8. It is possible to develop questions with a more complex stem which may require a degree of analysis before the answer is chosen. Such items are sometimes known as context-dependent multiple-choice questions. One or more multiple-choice questions are based on stimulus material which may be presented in the form of a clinical scenario, a diagram, a graph, a table of data, a statement from a text or research report, a photograph and so on. This approach is useful if one wishes to attempt to test the student’s ability at a higher intellectual level than simple recognition and recall of factual information. Extended-matching questions The technical limitations of conventional objective-type items for use in medical examinations has stimulated a search for alternative forms which retain the technical advantages of computer scoring. Many such efforts have achieved little more than increasing complexity and confusion for students. However, the extended matching question (EMQ) is becoming increasingly popular. The main technical advantage is the reduced impact of cueing by increasing the number of distractors. Other advantages include ease of construction and flexibility as they work equally well for basic science as for clinical areas. However, they are particularly well suited for testing diagnostic and management skills. The EMQ is typically made up of four parts: a theme of related concepts; a list of options; a lead-in statement to direct students; and two or more item sterns. The item shown includes two stems that illustrate how this EMQ might test at different levels. The first stem requires problem solving in order to determine a diagnosis; the second stem tests only recall.
A motor form of extinction has been postulated generic viagra super active 25 mg overnight delivery, manifesting as increased limb akinesia when the contralateral limb is used simultane- ously buy viagra super active 50 mg with mastercard. The presence of extinction is one of the behavioral manifestations of neglect, and most usually follows nondominant (right) hemisphere lesions. There is evidence for physiological interhemispheric rivalry or competition in detecting stimuli from both hemifields, which may account for the emergence of extinction following brain injury. Neural conse- quences of competing stimuli in both visual hemifields: a physiologi- cal basis for visual extinction. Annals of Neurology 2000; 47: 440-446 Cross References Akinesia; Hemiakinesia; Neglect; Visual extinction Extrapyramidal Signs - see PARKINSONISM Eyelid Apraxia Eyelid apraxia is an inability to open the eyelids at will, although they may open spontaneously at other times (i. The term has been criticized on the grounds that this may not always be a true “apraxia,” in which case the term “levator inhibition” may be preferred since the open eyelid position is normally maintained by tonic activity of the levator palpebrae superioris. Clinically there is no visible contraction of orbicularis oculi, which distinguishes eyelid apraxia from blepharospasm (however, perhaps paradoxically, the majority of cases of eyelid apraxia occur in association with ble- pharospasm). Electrophysiological studies do in fact show abnormal muscle contraction in the pre-tarsal portion of orbicularis oculi, which - 114 - Eyelid Apraxia E has prompted the suggestion that “focal eyelid dystonia” may be a more appropriate term. Although the phenomenon may occur in isolation, associations have been reported with: Progressive supranuclear palsy (Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syn- drome) Parkinson’s disease Huntington’s disease Multiple system atrophy MPTP intoxication Motor neurone disease Acute phase of nondominant hemisphere cerebrovascular event Wilson’s disease Neuroacanthocytosis. The precise neuroanatomical substrate is unknown but the associ- ation with basal ganglia disorders points to involvement of this region. The underlying mechanisms may be heterogeneous, including involun- tary inhibition of levator palpebrae superioris. Neurology 1997; 48: 1491-1494 Cross References Apraxia; Blepharospasm; Dystonia - 115 - F “Face-Hand Test” - see “Arm Drop” Facial Paresis Facial paresis, or prosopoplegia, may result from: ● central (upper motor neurone) lesions ● peripheral (lower motor neurone; facial (VII) nerve) lesions ● neuromuscular junction transmission disorders ● primary disease of muscle (i. A dissocia- tion between volitional and emotional facial movements may also occur. Emotional facial palsy refers to the absence of emotional facial movement but with preserved volitional movements, as may be seen with frontal lobe (especially non- dominant hemisphere) precentral lesions (as in abulia, Fisher’s sign) and in medial temporal lobe epilepsy with con- tralateral mesial temporal sclerosis. Volitional paresis with- out emotional paresis may occur when corticobulbar fibers are interrupted (precentral gyrus, internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, upper pons). Causes of upper motor neurone facial paresis include: Unilateral: Hemisphere infarct (with hemiparesis) Lacunar infarct (facio-brachial weakness, +/− dysphasia) Space occupying lesions: intrinsic tumor, metastasis, abscess Bilateral: Motor neurone disease Diffuse cerebrovascular disease Pontine infarct (locked-in syndrome) ● Lower motor neurone facial weakness (peripheral origin): If this is due to facial (VII) nerve palsy, it results in ipsilateral weakness of frontalis (cf. Clinically this produces: Drooping of the side of the face with loss of the nasolabial fold - 116 - Facial Paresis F Widening of the palpebral fissure with failure of lid closure (lagophthalmos) Eversion of the lower lid (ectropion) with excessive tearing (epiphora) Inability to raise the eyebrow, close the eye, frown, blow out the cheek, show the teeth, laugh, and whistle +/− dribbling of saliva from the paretic side of the mouth Depression of the corneal reflex (efferent limb of reflex arc affected) Speech alterations: softening of labials (p, b). Depending on the precise location of the facial nerve injury, there may also be paralysis of the stapedius muscle in the middle ear, causing sounds to seem abnormally loud (especially low tones: hyperacusis), and impairment of taste sensation on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue if the chorda tympani is affected (ageusia, hypogeusia). Lesions within the facial canal distal to the meatal segment cause both hyperacusis and ageusia; lesions in the facial canal between the nerve to stapedius and the chorda tympani cause ageusia but no hyperacusis; lesions distal to the chorda tympani cause neither ageusia nor hypera- cusis (i. Lesions of the cerebellopontine angle cause ipsilateral hearing impairment and corneal reflex depres- sion (afferent limb of reflex arc affected) in addition to facial weak- ness. There is also a sensory branch to the posterior wall of the external auditory canal which may be affected resulting in local hypoesthesia (Hitselberg sign). Causes of lower motor neurone facial paresis include: Bell’s palsy: idiopathic lower motor neurone facial weakness, assumed to result from a viral neuritis Herpes zoster (Ramsey Hunt syndrome); Diabetes mellitus Lyme disease (borreliosis, Bannwarth’s disease) Sarcoidosis Leukemic infiltration, lymphoma HIV seroconversion Neoplastic compression (e. These latter conditions may need to be differentiated from Bell’s palsy. Causes of recurrent facial paresis of lower motor neurone type include: Diabetes mellitus Lyme disease (borreliosis, Bannwarth’s disease) Sarcoidosis Leukemia, lymphoma. In myasthenia gravis, a disorder of neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction, there may be concurrent ptosis, diplopia, bulbar palsy and limb weakness, and evidence of fatigable weakness. Myogenic facial paresis may be seen in facioscapulohumeral (FSH) dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, mitochondrial disorders.
A useful way to organise your background research is to have two ﬁles – one for primary research and one for secondary research buy viagra super active 25mg without a prescription. Each ﬁle can be divided into topics with the relevant notes slotted into each viagra super active 50mg. Primary research For the primary research ﬁle, notes from each contact can be separated by a contact sheet which gives the name of the person, the date and time you met and a contact num- ber or address. Secondary research In the secondary research ﬁle, each page of notes can be headed by details of the publication in the same format that will be used in the bibliography – author and initials; date of publication; title of publication; place of publica- HOW TO CONDUCT BACKGROUND RESEARCH / 45 tion and publisher. If it is a journal article, remember to include the name of the journal; the page numbers of the article and the volume and number of the journal. It is also useful to include the location of this publication so that it can be found easily if needed again (website or li- brary shelf location). TABLE 2: SOURCES OF BACKGROUND INFORMATION PRIMARY SECONDARY Relevant people Research books Researcher observation Research reports Researcher experience Journal articles Historical records/texts Articles reproduced online Company/organisation records Scientiﬁc debates Personal documents (diaries, etc) Critiques of literary works Statistical data Critiques of art Works of literature Analyses of historical events Works of art Film/video Laboratory experiments SUMMARY X There are two types of background research – primary and secondary research. X Primary research involves the study of a subject through ﬁrsthand observation and investigation. X Secondary research involves the collection of informa- tion from studies that other researchers have made of a subject. X Any information obtained from secondary sources must be carefully assessed for its relevance and accu- racy. X Notes from primary and secondary sources should be carefully ﬁled and labelled so that the source can be found again, if required. X When noting details for books, reports or articles which may appear in the ﬁnal report, include all the details which would be needed for the bibliography. By now you should have decided what type of peo- ple you need to contact. For some research projects, there will be only a small number of people within your research population, in which case it might be possible to contact everyone. However, for most pro- jects, unless you have a huge budget, limitless timescale and large team of interviewers, it will be diﬃcult to speak to every person within your research population. SAMPLING Researchers overcome this problem by choosing a smaller, more manageable number of people to take part in their research. In quantitative research, it is believed that if this sample is chosen carefully using the correct procedure, it is then possible to generalise the re- sults to the whole of the research population. For many qualitative researchers however, the ability to generalise their work to the whole research population is not the goal. Instead, they might seek to describe or explain what is hap- pening within a smaller group of people. This, they believe, might provide insights into the behaviour of the wider re- search population, but they accept that everyone is diﬀerent 47 48 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS and that if the research were to be conducted with another group of people the results might not be the same. Market research- ers use them to ﬁnd out what the general population think about a new product or new advertisement. When they re- port that 87% of the population like the smell of a new brand of washing powder, they haven’t spoken to the whole population, but instead have contacted only a sam- ple of people which they believe are able to represent the whole population. When we hear that 42% of the popula- tion intend to vote Labour at the next General Election, only a sample of people have been asked about their voting intentions. If the sample has not been chosen very care- fully, the results of such surveys can be misleading.
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